Updates on the Diagnosis and Management of Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) represents a serious oncological emergency characterized by hyperu-ricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia, carrying the potential for life-threatening complications such as arrhythmias, renal failure, and seizures. The diagnostic process relies on serum markers, though limitations in radiological and electrocardiographic assessments necessitate further research. Effective management involves aggressive hydration, electrolyte balance restoration, and hypouricemic agents like allopurinol and rasburicase. Strategies for managing hy-perkalemia and hyperphosphatemia include sodium polystyrene sulfonate, glucose and insulin therapy, diuretics, and phosphate binders. In cases of recurrent hypocalcemia, calcium gluconate infusion is recommended, and hemodialysis should be considered for patients with severe metabolic disturbances or acute renal failure. This review discusses the key aspects of TLS, with an emphasis on risk assessment, laboratory-based diagnosis, and management strategies. The diagnostic process is based on serum markers, although limitations in radiological and electrocardiographic studies require further inves-tigation.
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